Let get knowledge about nanomaterials and their classification and Understand the methods of preparing nanomaterial Discuss the properties in detail Get knowledge about the application Of nanomaterials in various fields. materials play a vital role in the recently developed science and technology.
What is Nanoscience?
definition 1 -Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales; where properties differ significantly from those of larger scale.
definition 2 – Nanoscience is the study of atoms, molecules, and objects whose size is of the nanometer scale ( 1- IOOnm).
What is Nanotechnology?
definition 1 – Nanotechnology is the application of the principles of nanoscience into useful nano devices and components. By manipulating the concepts of nanoscience, nanotechnology aims at improving the lifestyle of the human race.
definition 2 -Nanotechnology is the technique of design, production of devices and systems by controlling the shape and size at the nanometer scale.
What is a nanoparticle?
A particle with size in the range of I-I00 nm is called a nanoparticle.
Where are nanomaterials found and used?
Nanomaterials are the materials containing nanocrystals, i.e. their grain size is in the 1 to 100 nm range. The nanomaterials may be metals, alloys, intermetallics, and ceramics. Some nanomaterials occur naturally. But of particular interest are, engineered nanomaterials are developed for use in many commercial products. For example, electronic devices, sporting cosmetics, textiles, sunscreens, tires, paint, varnishes etc. In the medical field, they are used for purpose of imaging, targeted drug delivery, diagnosis etc. Conventional materials have grain sin ranging from few microns to several millimeters* contain several billion atoms each. But, nanomaterials contain only nine hundred atoms each, A’: the grain sin decreases, there is a significant increase in the volume fraction at grain boundary or interfaces.
In general, the nanomaterials exhibit greatly altered properties such as physical, chemical mechanical compared to their normal large sized grain counterparts with the same chemical composition. Because of their unique microstructure, the nanomaterials are said to have strength, hardness, formability, toughness and are more brittle.
There are different classifications of nanostructures in nanotechnology. The most popular of nanostructure classification is according to their dimensions the nanoscale which is of the order of a few nanometers (l -1 OOnm), in at least one dimension (direction).
Nanostructures can be described as zero-dimensional (OD), one-dimensional (l D), dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) nanomaterials. All of the OD, ID,2D, and nanostructures can be nanocrystalline or amorphous. zero-dimensional (OD) nanostructures – In OD nanostructures, all of the dimensions are in the nanometric size range. Electrons confined in three dimensions
Example: Nanoparticles or well-separated nanopowders and quantum dots.
one-dimensional (ID) nanostructures – In ID nanostructures, two dimensions (x,y) in the nanometric size range and the third dimension (z) remains large. Electrons confined in two dimensions. These structures have a shape like a rod.
Example: Nanotubes, nanorods, nanoneedles and quantum wire.
two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures – In 21) nanostructures, one dimension reduced to the nanometric size range and the Other two dimension (x,y) remain Electrons confined in one dimension. These 21) structures display plane like structures,
Example: Nano thin films, nanocoatings, and nanolayers.
three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures – The 3D nanostructures have all the three dimensions (X,y,z ) outside of the nanometric size range. A 3D nanostructure can include different distributions of nanoparticles or nanocrystallites, nanocomposite materials, groups “nanowires and nanotubes and also different nanolayers.
Among the above type nanomaterials, most attention is paid to the synthesis and characterisation nanostmctures. The 3D nanomaterials has wider applications based on their strength, improved formabiliy and soft-magnetic properties. The 2D layered nanostructures finds application in electronic Recently, one-dimensional I D semiconductor nanostructures (wires, rods, belts, and tubes) become the focus of intensive research, owing to their unique application in the fabrication electronic, optoelectronic, and sensor devices on a nanometer scale.
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